Social Science Research
The prevailing professional opinion is that a parent’s sexual orientation has nothing to do with his or her ability to be a good parent. All major studies on the matter show that the sexual orientation of a parent is not related to a child’s mental health and social development.
- van Gelderen, L, Bos H, Gartrell N, et al. (2012) Quality of Life of Adolescents Raised from Birth by Lesbian Mothers. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. 33(1):1-7.
- Patterson, C.J. & Wainright, J. (2011). Adolescents with same-sex parents: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. In D. Brodzinsky & A. Pertman (Eds.), Adoption by lesbians and gay men: A new dimension in family diversity (pp. 85-111). New York: Oxford University Press.
- Farr, R.H., Forssell, S.L., & Patterson, C.J. (2010). Parenting and child development in adoptive families: Does parental sexual orientation matter? Applied Developmental Science, 14, 164-178.
- Biblarz, T. J. & Stacey, J. (2010). How does the gender of parents matter? Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 3-22.
- Erich, S., Kanenberg, H., Case, K., Allen, T., & Bogdanos, T. (2009). An empirical analysis of factors affecting adolescent attachment in adoptive families with homosexual and straight parents. Children and Youth Services Review, 31, 398-404.
- Crowl, A. L., Ahn, S., & Baker, J. (2008). A metaanalysis of developmental outcomes for children of same-sex and heterosexual parents. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 4, 385 – 407.
- Erich, S., Leung, P. & Kindle, P. (2005). A comparative analysis of adoptive family functioning with gay, lesbian, and heterosexual parents and their children. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 1, 43-60.
- Erich, S., Leung, P., Kindle, P. & Carter, S. (2005). Gay and lesbian adoptive families: An exploratory study of family functioning, adoptive child's behavior, and familial support networks. Journal of Family Social Work, 9, 17-32,
- The Effects of Marriage, Civil Union, and Domestic Partnership Laws on the Health and Well-being of Children, (American Academy of Pediatrics, Pediatrics: Vol. 118 No. 1 July 2006, pp. 349-364)
- Expanding Resources for Children: Is Adoption By Gays and Lesbians Part of the Answer for Boys and Girls Who Need Homes?(Jeanne Howard, Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute, March 2006)
- The High Cost of Denying Permanency (Prepared by Carl A. Schuh, J.D., M.A. and Karen M. Doering, J.D., National Center for Lesbian Rights)
- Technical Report: Coparent or Second-Parent Adoption by Same-Sex Parents (Ellen C. Perrin, American Academy of Pediatrics, 2002)
- Adoption by Lesbians and Gays: A National Survey of Adoption Agency Policies, Practices, and Attitudes (Evan B. Donaldson Adoption Institute, 2003)
- The Cost of Marriage Inequality to Children and Their Same-Sex Parents (Human Rights Campaign Foundation, 2005)
- Lesbian and Gay Parenting: Summary of Research Findings (Charlotte J. Patterson, American Psychological Association, 1995)